Physics Van 3-site Navigational Menu

Physics Van Navigational Menu

Q & A: Do photons accelerate from rest?

Learn more physics!

Most recent answer: 08/31/2016
Q:
I read your answer that light does not accelerate and it seemed too make sense but if you turn on a light bulb the photons emmited must accelerate to the speed of light in air since they were not moving before, dont they?
cheater click wifes who cheat
rite aid prescription transfer coupon mesutcakir.com.tr coupon rite aid
priligy 30mg click cialis 40mg
viagra coupons from manufacturer liberitutti.info drug discount coupons
new prescription coupon viagra coupons printable prescription coupon card
prescription discount coupons softballspa.com viagra discount coupons online
coupons prescriptions prescription savings cards manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
diabetes affect sexuality diabetes sexuality treatment
viagra bestellen online viagra online shop pillen kopen
cialis coupons from lilly coupon for free cialis coupons for prescriptions
coupons for prescriptions mha.dk drug prescription card
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
augmentin générique arbot.cz augmentin sirop
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
champix alkohol go champix
champix alkohol go champix
fusidinezuur kopen go fusidic acid
ibuprofen rapid tracyawheeler.com ibuprofen
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
motilium enceinte motilium notice motilium et grossesse
how expensive is an abortion abortion clinic abortion clinics dallas tx
vivitrol alcohol vivitrol implant narcan challenge

- Draken-Korin
A:
Those photons didn't really exist before. There aren't a fixed number of photons. They can be destroyed and created. The energy, momentum, and angular momentum they have were there beforehand, but not in the form of photons.

Mike W
internet drug coupons open prescription coupon
rite aid prescription transfer coupon open coupon rite aid
viagra coupons from manufacturer liberitutti.info drug discount coupons
coupon for viagra open viagra discount coupons online
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs viagra 2016 coupon coupon prescription
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs online viagra coupons coupon prescription
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
diabetes affect sexuality diabetes sexuality treatment
cialis coupons from lilly coupon for free cialis coupons for prescriptions
cialis coupon card read cialis coupons from manufacturer
drug discount coupons blog.suntekusa.com discount coupons for prescriptions
naprosyn roche naprosyn wiki naprosyn nedir
ibuprofen rapid tracyawheeler.com ibuprofen
fluvoxamine (luvox) blog.tgworkshop.net fluvoxamina bula
buscopan hund buscopan dosierung buscopan dragees
cefdinir red stool ski-club-auringen.de cefdinir nedir
singulair 4 mg granulat site singulair patient information
how expensive is an abortion do abortions hurt abortion clinics dallas tx

(published on 10/22/2007)

Follow-Up #1: photon acceleration?

Q:
It is incomprehensible to me how a photon of light can go from 0 to 67 million miles per hour instantaneously. What is the motive force that propels the photon? Where does the energy come from? Why is c "limited" to 186,000mps? Why is the speed of light finite? What prevents the light from traveling even faster than it does? I realize that the answers to these questions are unknown, but I would be interested to hear the speculation of the physicists in the scientific community on this subject.
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
internet drug coupons open prescription coupon
types of abortions site what happens when you get an abortion
walgreens coupons deals blog.mrwade.co.uk walgreens photo print coupons
discount card prescription damske.com print cvs
coupons for prescriptions floridafriendlyplants.com prescription drugs discount cards
viagra coupon card blog.brunothalmann.com viagra free coupon
pfizer coupons for viagra free discount prescription cards viagra discounts coupons
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
where buy viagra online http://viagraforsaleuk1.com online viagra buy
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
naproxennatrium zygonie.com naproxen migraine
venlafaxine gewichtstoename read venlafaxine fk
champix alkohol go champix
flibanserin online click flibanserin buy
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar pris proscar pris
cialis thepoliticalsword.com cialis walgreen coupon
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
lasix injetavel lasix para emagrecer lasix
singulair 4 mg granulat scottdangelo.com singulair patient information
prescriptions coupons cialis coupon drug prescription card
vivitrol alcohol vivitrol implant narcan challenge

- Mark
Wichita, Kansas USA
A:
We've addressed part of that question , about 'acceleration', above.

The energy and momentum just come from other particles and fields.

I think it would be fair to say that there is not any known reason that the universe has a finite speed limit rather than an infinite one. However, at least the mathematical description with a finite limit is logical and self-consistent.

Mike W.

why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
the best android phone link phone tracking apps
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
best android spy open how to spy on an android phone
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
prescription drugs discount cards link coupons for viagra printable
viagra coupons free softballspa.com drug coupons
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs viagra coupons 2016 coupon prescription
can i take minocycline with birth control read can i take minocycline with birth control
acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas
cialis coupons from lilly coupon for free cialis coupons for prescriptions
prescription drug coupons cialis coupons from lilly drug coupon
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
kamagra wikipedia blog.jrmissworld.com kamagra shop
fluvoxamine (luvox) open fluvoxamina bula
fluvoxamine (luvox) blog.tgworkshop.net fluvoxamina bula
buscopan hund buscopan dosierung buscopan dragees
amlodipine 5 mg amlodipine bijwerkingen amlodipine accord
voltaren retard voltaren pomada voltaren spray
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
prescriptions coupons coupons for prescriptions drug prescription card
how expensive is an abortion abortion clinic abortion clinics dallas tx

(published on 10/22/2007)

Follow-Up #2: energy and light speed

Q:
Assume visible light traveling in vacuum and entering a transparent glass with refractive index 1.5. Because the glass is transparent, the light gets transmitted and comes out from the other side. Prior to entering the glass, the velocity of light was c. Just after the vacuum-glass interface, its velocity is c/1.5 (therefore there is deceleration!). After it comes out of the glass-vacuum interface, its velocity is again c (now there is acceleration from velocity c/1.5 to c). Where is the energy source for driving this deceleration and acceleration of the photons?
cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
types of abortions site what happens when you get an abortion
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
levaquin pill internetsellout.com furosemide pill
online discount pharmacy viagra coupons and discounts coupon for prescription
coupons for prescriptions floridafriendlyplants.com prescription drugs discount cards
1 wk pregnant d&c dilation and curettage article on abortion
cialis dosage and go cialis dose for copd pts
diabetes affect sexuality cialis dosage information diabetes sexuality treatment
cialis coupons from lilly coupon for free cialis coupons for prescriptions
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
diflucan 150 gruene-kehl.de diflucan sirup
kamagra wikipedia click kamagra shop
proscar vs propecia for hair loss read proscar pris
renovacija stanovanja blog.myexpensesonline.co.uk renova g
lasix injetavel lasix lasix
vivitrol alcohol vivitrol implant narcan challenge

- B K Chandrasekhar (age 53)
Bangalore, India
A:
Thats a really interesting question. It turns out that a blip of light has the same energy in the glass as it had outside. There is a universal quantum relation between energy and frequency, E=hf, where h is Plancks constant. The frequency doesnt change in the glass, so the energy per quantum doesnt change, and neither does the number of quanta.
 The velocity-dependent energy formula (mv2/2) familiar from classical physics only applies to particles with rest-mass traveling at much less than the speed of light.

In the vacuum, you can classically describe the light energy as entirely consisting of electric and magnetic field energies. In the glass, the field energy is reduced but the energy is still there in the kinetic energies of particles (mainly electrons) oscillating in response to the fields.

Mike W.
cheater click wifes who cheat
best android spy open how to spy on an android phone
levitra pill imitrex 25mg tadalafil pill
levitra pill imitrex 25mg tadalafil pill
viagra coupon card free prescription cards discount viagra free coupon
coupons prescriptions prescription savings cards manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
1 wk pregnant d&c dilation and curettage article on abortion
1 wk pregnant d&c dilation and curettage article on abortion
diabetes affect sexuality cialis dosage information diabetes sexuality treatment
cialis price online open cialis price history
cialis coupons from lilly coupon for free cialis coupons for prescriptions
prescription drug coupons cialis coupons from lilly drug coupon
discount prescription drug cards cialis online coupon prescription discounts cards
voltaren ára voltaren duo voltaren
venlafaxine gewichtstoename idippedut.dk venlafaxine fk
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
ibuprofen rapid tracyawheeler.com ibuprofen
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
cialis coupon card evans.com.mx cialis coupon
trental cena link trental nuspojave
how expensive is an abortion abortion clinic abortion clinics dallas tx

(published on 10/22/2007)

Follow-Up #3: photon basics

Q:
I was taught in school that Photons are both a particle and a wave, and that photons have a specific mass. You are saying this is not true? If not, then why are our schools teaching it and if photons do have mass then how do they get around the acceleration part? If they are just energy and are "already there in another form" Then how does electricity effect metal or gas to transform that energy that is "already there" into photons/light coming from a light bulb.
cheater read wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic site live abortion video
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
internet drug coupons coupons for prescription medications prescription coupon
married woman looking to cheat go most women cheat
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
priligy 30mg go cialis 40mg
levitra pill go tadalafil pill
finasteride lasix 40mg cialis 80mg
free viagra samples coupon open viagra 2016 coupon
viagra coupons free softballspa.com drug coupons
coupon for viagra open viagra discount coupons online
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
viagra bestellen online viagra online shop pillen kopen
cialis price online lipseysguns.com cialis price history
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
arcoxia 30 arcoxia 90 arcoxia wiki
champix alkohol go champix
ibuprofen rapid tracyawheeler.com ibuprofen
flibanserin online lasertech.com flibanserin buy
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
seroquel 25 mg read seroquel debljanje
cialis cialis cialis walgreen coupon
fluvoxamine (luvox) open fluvoxamina bula
nurofen cold and flu dosage internetsellout.com nurofen plus dosage

- Nathan (age 25)
Casa Grande, Az, USA
A:
I don't think that what you were taught in school is really wrong. Quantum objects (photons are an example) show wave-like behavior in some circumstances and more particle-like behavior in other circumstances.

You can treat a photon as having a specific mass, its energy divided by c2, so long as you're careful about the meaning of 'mass'. Here you'd mean the ratio of the momentum to the velocity.  Some people use 'mass' just to mean rest-mass, and the rest-mass of photon is zero.

The key point is that photons do not exist in fixed numbers. They can be created and destroyed. They do not sit at v=0 and then somehow accelerate up to v=c. When they exist, they are always traveling at speed c.

The conversion of other forms of energy to electromagnetic (photon) energy can be described in some cases simply as driven by the acceleration of charged particles, just like in the classical theory of electromagnetism. In quantum electrodynamics there are other specific rules governing the likelihood of energy present in charged particles getting converted to EM field energy, and you need these more subtle rules to predict, for example, how long a hydrogen atom typically spends in an 'excited state' before it falls to the lowest-energy state, emitting a photon.

Mike W.
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
walgreens coupons deals blog.mrwade.co.uk walgreens photo print coupons
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
online discount pharmacy viagra coupons and discounts coupon for prescription
online discount pharmacy dotnetblogengine.net coupon for prescription
prescription drugs discount cards link coupons for viagra printable
coupon for viagra viagra trial coupon viagra discount coupons online
can i take escitalopram in the morning link can i take escitalopram in the morning
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopriland.net lisinopril and bisoprolol
diabetes affect sexuality diabetes sexuality treatment
acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas
drug discount coupons blog.suntekusa.com discount coupons for prescriptions
lilly cialis coupon coupons for prescriptions coupons prescriptions
arcoxia 30 arcoxia 90 arcoxia wiki
champix alkohol mdwguide.com champix
champix alkohol go champix
cialis thepoliticalsword.com cialis walgreen coupon
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
lasix injetavel lasix para emagrecer lasix
voltaren retard link voltaren spray
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
motilium enceinte motilium notice motilium et grossesse
trental cena trenitalia trental nuspojave

(published on 05/16/2013)

Follow-Up #4: Speed of deflected light

Q:
According to theory of relativity ,When light rays travels around the massive object,their path gets deflected.My Question is that whether this deflection causes some deceleration of photons or not ? and how ?
cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
the best android phone link phone tracking apps
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
finasteride zithromax cialis 80mg
coupons for prescriptions new prescription coupons prescription drugs discount cards
viagra coupons free read drug coupons
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs online viagra coupons coupon prescription
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
diabetes affect sexuality open diabetes sexuality treatment
acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas
cialis price online lipseysguns.com cialis price history
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
discount prescription drug cards nationalautocare.com prescription discounts cards
naproxennatrium site naproxen migraine
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar proscar pris
seroquel 25 mg read seroquel debljanje
buscopan hund go buscopan dragees
singulair 4 mg granulat site singulair patient information
prescriptions coupons coupons for prescriptions drug prescription card

- Amol Jagtap , age 25
Pune , Maharashtra , India
A:
No, the speed of light remains the same.   Only the direction is changed.  It's like riding in a car on a circular race track at constant speed.

LeeH

You might also be wondering what happens as light directly approaches or leaves a massive object. It would seem like its speed would change, but as far as any local observer sees, it always travels at the speed of light. There's no way to patch this up without using a different geometry of spacetime than we intuitively believe. The new geometry is called General Relativity.  Mike W.
hillcrest abortion clinic abortive live abortion video
types of abortions site what happens when you get an abortion
cvs discount card cvs coupon online prescription drugs discount cards
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
online discount pharmacy viagra coupons and discounts coupon for prescription
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
cialis coupons from lilly prescription drug cards coupons for prescriptions
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
naproxennatrium zygonie.com naproxen migraine
diflucan 150 site diflucan sirup
ibuprofen rapid ibuprofen spc ibuprofen
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar pris proscar pris
fluvoxamine (luvox) open fluvoxamina bula
cefdinir red stool cefdinir nedir cefdinir nedir
prescriptions coupons emergent-ventures.com drug prescription card
vivitrol alcohol naltrexone alcoholism medication narcan challenge

(published on 07/24/2009)

Follow-Up #5: photon momentum in glass

Q:
In follow up question #2, how momentum of photons is conserved when light enters glass and again when it leaves it? Does photons become more massive as they enter refractive medium which slows its speed?
why people cheat infidelity signs how many people cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic abortive live abortion video
best android spy apps to spy on phones how to spy on an android phone
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
free prescription cards nwwebdesigns.net walgreens prints coupon codes
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
imitrex 50mg thepoliticalsword.com flagyl 200mg
viagra coupons free softballspa.com drug coupons
diabetes affect sexuality diabetes sexuality treatment
viagra bestellen online viagra pillen kruidvat pillen kopen
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
champix alkohol go champix
diflucan 150 diflucan djelovanje diflucan sirup
kamagra wikipedia click kamagra shop
ibuprofen rapid ibuprofen spc ibuprofen
proscar vs propecia for hair loss read proscar pris
cefdinir red stool ski-club-auringen.de cefdinir nedir

- Indrajit Kuri
New Delhi, India
A:
This is a great question. It's a matter on which there's not quite unanimous consensus, but I'll give my own view, which seems in accord with recent experimental evidence and also is probably the closest to a consensus view. (See )

 Let's say that the glass has anti-reflection coating, so we don't have to worry about any photons being reflected. The wavelength  λ of the light in glass is reduced. Using the quantum relation p=h/ λ, the momentum p per photon is increased.

How can that be? As the light enters the glass, there's an attractive electromagnetic interaction  between the light and the glass. The glass is pulled back toward the direction the light came from. This tiny motion of the large glass mass has the necessary p to keep total p conserved. An opposite recoil occurs as the light leaves.

Mike W.
married men cheat with men open wifes cheat
rite aid prescription transfer coupon mesutcakir.com.tr coupon rite aid
imitrex 50mg thyroxine flagyl 200mg
online discount pharmacy dotnetblogengine.net coupon for prescription
free viagra samples coupon gallaghermalpractice.com viagra 2016 coupon
discount prescriptions coupons printable cialis coupon internet drug coupons
1 wk pregnant abortion pill article on abortion
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
cialis coupons from lilly prescription drug cards coupons for prescriptions
cialis coupon card read cialis coupons from manufacturer
claritinekombo read claritine za psa
venlafaxine gewichtstoename idippedut.dk venlafaxine fk
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
kamagra wikipedia blog.jrmissworld.com kamagra shop
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar proscar pris
fluvoxamine (luvox) open fluvoxamina bula
cialis cialis discount cialis walgreen coupon
voltaren retard link voltaren spray
prescriptions coupons coupons for prescriptions drug prescription card

(published on 07/20/2010)

Follow-Up #6: photon momentum in glass

Q:
It is a well known fact that speed of light decreases as it passes through any refractive medium like glass. But in your reply you say that 'the momentum p per photon is increased' as the light enters the glass. If photons mass is unchanged, shouldn't then the speed of light increase in glass? if momentum of photon increases. Isn't it contradictory?
cheater read wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic site live abortion video
internet drug coupons open prescription coupon
married woman looking to cheat married men that cheat most women cheat
married men cheat with men open wifes cheat
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
types of abortions site what happens when you get an abortion
best android spy spy on mobile how to spy on an android phone
best android spy spy on mobile how to spy on an android phone
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
ventolin 2mg thyroxine 25mcg deltasone 40mg
free viagra samples coupon gallaghermalpractice.com viagra 2016 coupon
new prescription coupon discount drug coupons prescription coupon card
prescription drugs coupons viagra manufacturer coupon 2016 viagra coupon card
viagra coupons free read drug coupons
discount prescriptions coupons pet prescription discount card internet drug coupons
1 wk pregnant abortion pill article on abortion
can i take escitalopram in the morning can i take escitalopram in the morning can i take escitalopram in the morning
cialis dosage and cialis dose for copd pts
diabetes affect sexuality open diabetes sexuality treatment
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
naproxennatrium zygonie.com naproxen migraine
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
champix alkohol go champix
ibuprofen rapid ibuprofen spc ibuprofen
flibanserin online lasertech.com flibanserin buy
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
nurofen cold and flu dosage internetsellout.com nurofen plus dosage
singulair 4 mg granulat scottdangelo.com singulair patient information

- Indrajit Kuri
New Delhi
A:
It's a little tricky to talk about the "photon's mass", but if you were to assign an inertial mass (p/v) to the photon, it would be larger in the glass. You can think of the bare photon as being dressed in a disturbance of the electrons in the glass, with some inertial mass attributed to that disturbance.

Mike W.
why people cheat infidelity signs how many people cheat
the best android phone link phone tracking apps
internet drug coupons site prescription coupon
married woman looking to cheat My wife cheated on me most women cheat
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
levaquin pill diprolene 0.05% furosemide pill
ventolin 2mg thyroxine 25mcg deltasone 40mg
free online coupons pharmacy coupon new prescription coupons
lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopril and bisoprolol
diabetes affect sexuality cialis dosage information diabetes sexuality treatment
where buy viagra online http://viagraforsaleuk1.com online viagra buy
cialis coupons from lilly coupon for free cialis coupons for prescriptions
cialis coupon card eblogin.com cialis coupons from manufacturer
augmentin générique arbot.cz augmentin sirop
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar proscar pris
cialis cialis cialis walgreen coupon
cialis cialis discount cialis walgreen coupon
cialis cialis discount cialis walgreen coupon
motilium enceinte blog.cr-inside.org motilium et grossesse
trental cena trenitalia trental nuspojave
how expensive is an abortion do abortions hurt abortion clinics dallas tx

(published on 08/19/2010)

Follow-Up #7: How far will light travel?

Q:
light emitted from a star for example, how long and how far will it travel if it encounters nothing on its path? What happens to light in a black hole when it cannot escape?
why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic abortive live abortion video
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
free prescription cards nwwebdesigns.net walgreens prints coupon codes
priligy 30mg go cialis 40mg
prescriptions coupons markthrice.com discount coupon for viagra
prescription drugs discount cards blog.plazacutlery.com coupons for viagra printable
pfizer coupons for viagra prescription coupon viagra discounts coupons
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
cialis coupons from lilly click coupons for prescriptions
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
claritinekombo read claritine za psa
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
naproxennatrium site naproxen migraine
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
cialis thepoliticalsword.com cialis walgreen coupon
fluvoxamine (luvox) blog.tgworkshop.net fluvoxamina bula
motilium enceinte motilium notice motilium et grossesse
singulair 4 mg granulat scottdangelo.com singulair patient information
how expensive is an abortion do abortions hurt abortion clinics dallas tx

- Prabhakar (age 47)
Hyderabad,Andhra Pradesh,India
A:
If a photon doesn't bump into anything it will travel forever.  The age of the universe is thought to be 13.7 billion years old.  This number comes from astrophysical observations and is a consequence of the so-called 'Big Bang Theory'.   We can observe light coming from this time by looking at the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB).  So that light has been happily traveling for 13.7 billion years.

LeeH
cheater read wifes who cheat
cheater read wifes who cheat
types of abortions site what happens when you get an abortion
best android spy spy on mobile how to spy on an android phone
free online coupons pharmacy coupon new prescription coupons
viagra coupons from manufacturer open drug discount coupons
new prescription coupon areta.se prescription coupon card
can i take minocycline with birth control read can i take minocycline with birth control
lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopriland.net lisinopril and bisoprolol
viagra bestellen online viagra pillen kruidvat pillen kopen
cialis coupon card read cialis coupons from manufacturer
drug discount coupons blog.suntekusa.com discount coupons for prescriptions
discount prescription drug cards nationalautocare.com prescription discounts cards
cialis open cialis walgreen coupon
fluvoxamine (luvox) blog.tgworkshop.net fluvoxamina bula
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
lasix injetavel lasix lasix
voltaren retard voltaren forte voltaren spray
trental cena trental trental nuspojave

(published on 07/28/2011)

Follow-Up #8: Speed of Light vs Speed of Sound

Q:
This "light speed thing" has been buzzing around in my mind.Something about the "speed limit" idea does not set right with logic as i know it.Everything i have read about photons seem unique to other particles. In spite of what I know about evolution and adaptation to the environment, it seems too coincidental That the two most important,sound waves and photons have exact speeds. How would our perception of sight ever work well or evolve properly if photons did not behave exactly the way they do ? Yet it is accepted at least right now that electromagnetic waves do not propagate in any kind of "substance" as sound does. Could it be possible that there is some kind of "medium" here and in space that we are not aware of yet that might limit it's speed? And if we do find it someday all of this would make total sense. Another interesting thing about light (and owning plenty of LED flash lights)is that the question comes up, Does a higher watt plash light produce more photons or photons that carry more energy. The same question seems more amplified in the case of different powered lasers.
why people cheat catch a cheat how many people cheat
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
discount card prescription damske.com print cvs
finasteride lasix 40mg cialis 80mg
imitrex 50mg site flagyl 200mg
online discount pharmacy dotnetblogengine.net coupon for prescription
cialis price online open cialis price history
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
discount prescription drug cards nationalautocare.com prescription discounts cards
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
champix alkohol mdwguide.com champix
fusidinezuur kopen go fusidic acid
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
ibuprofen rapid ibuprofen spc ibuprofen
seroquel 25 mg click seroquel debljanje
lasix injetavel lasix para emagrecer lasix
motilium enceinte motilium notice motilium et grossesse
trental cena trenitalia trental nuspojave
how expensive is an abortion link abortion clinics dallas tx
vivitrol alcohol what is vivitrol shot narcan challenge

- Chris (age 57)
Glen Cove , NY 11542
A:
Your last couple questions are much simpler to answer than the rest so I'll address them first.  Two similarly designed flashlights, emitting light with different power, will basically just emit different amounts of approximately the same energy photons.  Similarly, lasers of the same color but greater power simply emit more photons than those of lesser power.  However, lasers of different color emit photons of different frequencies.  The higher the frequency, the higher the energy of the photon.  Frequency follows color, from lowest to highest, in standard ROY G BIV rainbow order.  This means a blue photon carries more energy than a red photon, so a red laser emitting the same power as a blue laser will emit more photons of less energy.


I'm not sure I understand your other questions exactly but you're definitely concerned with the constancy of the speed of light, and a similar phenomena with sound.

The first thing I need to correct is your assumption that the speed of sound is exact.  This isn't true.  The speed of sound varies greatly from one material to another.  For instance, the speed of sound in water, approximately 1480 m/s, is around 4 times greater than that in air at about 340 m/s.  Things like solid metals often carry sound even quicker, iron for example at about 5100 m/s.  But even in air the speed of sound is not constant, factors that affect it include humidity, temperature, and pressure among others.
In most materials the speed of sound is defined as
s=(P/ρ)^(1/2)
Where P is the bulk modulus (or bulk elasticity for gasses) which is basically a measure of stiffness for a given material, and ρ is the mass density.

Next, the speed of light isn't actually constant either.  When we say the phrase, the speed of light, we're usually talking about the speed of light in a vacuum. This value is accepted to be constant, but light does slow down when it propagates through matter.  It slows by a factor called the Refractive Index, which typically increases with a materials density.  Light however can act as a particle on its own and doesn't need any sort of matter to be present in order to propagate so we say it has no medium. 

It used to be thought that light traveled through a medium, the so called "luminiferous aether", in the same way sound travels through air or some other material.  Without getting too much into it, experiments like the have shown strong evidence against the medium and in support of Einstein's special relativity.

Now if light didn't work exactly the way it did, well the universe as we know it today wouldn't exist.  But if in its place were something just a tiny bit different and in that quasi-universe there evolved something a bit like the animals we have here on earth then they would likely evolve a similar sense of sight to some animal currently on earth.  Evolution is a process that rewards the ability to pass on genetic code. Pretty much all matter interacts with light in one way or another, and things that want to eat you, or you want to eat, are no exception.  So being able to see your food/predators is very beneficial in living long enough to pass on one's genes.

So to put it in a sentence.  Evolution follows physics, not the other way around.



Thanks for the question,
Mike Boehme
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
types of abortions read what happens when you get an abortion
imitrex 50mg thyroxine flagyl 200mg
online discount pharmacy viagra coupons and discounts coupon for prescription
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
1 wk pregnant d&c dilation and curettage article on abortion
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
diabetes affect sexuality cialis dosage information diabetes sexuality treatment
cialis manufacturer coupon cialis discounts coupons prescription drug coupons
cialis coupon lilly click transfer prescription coupon
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
augmentin générique arbot.cz augmentin sirop
fusidinezuur kopen fusidinezuur kopen fusidic acid
lasix injetavel lasix lasix
voltaren retard voltaren pomada voltaren spray
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
how expensive is an abortion abortion clinic abortion clinics dallas tx

(published on 03/31/2012)

Follow-Up #9: photons in water

Q:
leading up to my question are thoughts regarding what I have read previously. From what I have read it would appear that a photon has no RESTING mass because it is only observed in motion. This sounds like photons cease to exist if they were "stopped" . It has also been explained that in science if there is an observation then more of the same observations could be applied. One observation is that photons can be observed moving slower than their limit speed when they pass like through water and they still exist. The first question is if photons are slowed down do they loose some of their mass or intensity? If farther experiments could be done to farther slow down photons would photons as they are increasingly slowed start to increasingly loss mass (fade) until they almost do not move and virtually disappear until they stop and do disappear ? is there a a mathematical formula relating to the speed of the photon and it's mass?
cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
cheater click wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic site live abortion video
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
walgreens coupons deals free grocery coupons walgreens photo print coupons
priligy 30mg click cialis 40mg
free online coupons onlineseoanalyzer.com new prescription coupons
prescriptions coupons markthrice.com discount coupon for viagra
coupons for prescriptions click prescription drugs discount cards
coupons for prescriptions new prescription coupons prescription drugs discount cards
coupons prescriptions blog.brunothalmann.com manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
cialis coupons from lilly click coupons for prescriptions
venlafaxine gewichtstoename read venlafaxine fk
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
champix alkohol go champix
diflucan 150 diflucan djelovanje diflucan sirup
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar proscar pris
fluvoxamine (luvox) open fluvoxamina bula
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
cialis coupon card coupon prescription cialis coupon
prescriptions coupons emergent-ventures.com drug prescription card
vivitrol alcohol naltrexone alcoholism medication narcan challenge

- chris (age 58)
Glen Cove , NY,Nassau
A:
I've moved your question to follow-up ones that lead into it better.

As photons go into materials, they become something a little different, dressed in excitations of electrons. Assuming no reflection, the net energy E of the whole packet stays essentially the same, since the frequency f doesn't change and the relation E=hf is universal. However, the wavelength λ becomes shorter, so the momentum p of the packet goes up, since p=h/λ is also universal. (The momentum conservation is maintained by a slight recoil of the whole material.)

So since p goes up and v goes down, if you define inertial mass as p/v, it goes up by a factor (c/v)2=n2, where n is the index of refraction. In a typical material with electric but not magnetic susceptibility at optical frequencies, this is just a factor of ε,  the electric susceptibility.

Mike W.
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
the best android phone mealmixer.com phone tracking apps
best android spy open how to spy on an android phone
free online coupons prescription card new prescription coupons
viagra coupons from manufacturer open drug discount coupons
viagra coupons free link drug coupons
coupons prescriptions blog.brunothalmann.com manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs viagra coupons 2016 coupon prescription
cialis dosage and cialis dose for copd pts
diabetes affect sexuality diabetes sexuality treatment
viagra bestellen online viagra online shop pillen kopen
cialis price online link cialis price history
cialis coupons from lilly prescription drug cards coupons for prescriptions
augmentin générique arbot.cz augmentin sirop
augmentin générique arbot.cz augmentin sirop
flibanserin online click flibanserin buy
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar pris proscar pris

(published on 08/01/2012)

Follow-Up #10: Does light need a medium?

Q:
Why is it that in this discussion of light and its speed you are stating that light travels through a vacuum and it does not need a medium to do so when we know that there are gravitational fields practically everywhere, not to mention the 97% Dark Energy & Dark Matter, which light must travel through ?
why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
hillcrest abortion clinic site live abortion video
married woman looking to cheat married men that cheat most women cheat
types of abortions site what happens when you get an abortion
best android spy apps to spy on phones how to spy on an android phone
finasteride sigridw.com cialis 80mg
coupons prescriptions prescription savings cards manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
coupon for viagra viagra trial coupon viagra discount coupons online
can i take minocycline with birth control read can i take minocycline with birth control
cialis dosage and cialis dose for copd pts
diabetes affect sexuality cialis dosage information diabetes sexuality treatment
cialis price online lipseysguns.com cialis price history
prescription drug coupons prescription discount coupon drug coupon
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
champix alkohol click champix
diflucan 150 gruene-kehl.de diflucan sirup
fluvoxamine (luvox) blog.tgworkshop.net fluvoxamina bula
buscopan hund buscopan dosierung buscopan dragees
singulair 4 mg granulat scottdangelo.com singulair patient information
trental cena trenitalia trental nuspojave
how expensive is an abortion abortion clinic abortion clinics dallas tx
vivitrol alcohol vivitrol implant narcan challenge

- George Mavros (age 68)
NYC, NY. USA
A:
You can measure the effects of gravitational fields on light. They're usually very small, except near black holes. There's no indication that somehow light would stop propagating where the field goes to zero. (For insiders- yes we know that the gravitational field doesn't have a unique value, but for now let's use a conventional coordinate frame where it's about zero in most regions.)

As for dark matter, we know where it is because of its gravitational effects on visible matter. Light propagates just fine through regions where it's dense and where it's very sparse. Other than the weak gravitational effects, light and dark matter don't influence each other.

What about dark energy? Since at least in the current epoch, it seems to be everywhere, we can't make the same sort of argument we made about dark matter. Conceivably a full understanding of dark energy and a deeper understanding of light could both end up pointing to some Calabi-Yau geometry of some underlying string field, which I guess you could call a "medium". That is not only way over my head but also beyond the current state of the art.

Mike W.
why people cheat infidelity signs how many people cheat
the best android phone link phone tracking apps
internet drug coupons open prescription coupon
buy sildenafil 100mg buy sildenafil 100mg viagra 100 mg
priligy 30mg click cialis 40mg
levitra pill mostefaiamine.com tadalafil pill
free online coupons prescription card new prescription coupons
viagra coupons from manufacturer liberitutti.info drug discount coupons
new prescription coupon discount drug coupons prescription coupon card
coupons for prescriptions floridafriendlyplants.com prescription drugs discount cards
coupons prescriptions blog.brunothalmann.com manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
viagra bestellen online viagra online shop pillen kopen
cialis coupons from lilly click coupons for prescriptions
naproxennatrium zygonie.com naproxen migraine
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
kamagra wikipedia blog.jrmissworld.com kamagra shop
sildenafil pfizer dotnetblogengine.net sildenafil sandoz
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar pris proscar pris
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
lasix injetavel lasix lasix
voltaren retard voltaren pomada voltaren spray
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
prescriptions coupons emergent-ventures.com drug prescription card
vivitrol alcohol naltrexone alcoholism medication narcan challenge

(published on 09/02/2012)

Follow-Up #11: Is there an ether

Q:
Thank you Mike. My understanding is that light is traveling through a medium at all times. The existence of a perfect vacuum seems inconceivable to me as you yourself state even weak gravitational fields exist everywhere, and as we have imaged through telescopes, within galaxies, clusters of galaxies and super galactic clusters. In fact as far as we can observe today everything in the presently detectable universe is connected at least gravitationally. I strongly suspect that Dark Energy & Dark Matter, indirectly detected and proposed theoretically today, might have a close relationship to gravity. The final point I would like to make is that, to my understanding,a perfect vacuum or 'nothingness' cannot exist.
cheater click wifes who cheat
the best android phone link phone tracking apps
best android spy open how to spy on an android phone
imitrex 50mg thyroxine flagyl 200mg
free viagra samples coupon gallaghermalpractice.com viagra 2016 coupon
viagra coupons from manufacturer liberitutti.info drug discount coupons
viagra coupon card blog.brunothalmann.com viagra free coupon
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs online viagra coupons coupon prescription
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
cialis dosage and go cialis dose for copd pts
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
cialis coupon card open cialis coupons from manufacturer
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
kamagra wikipedia blog.jrmissworld.com kamagra shop
flibanserin online lasertech.com flibanserin buy
seroquel 25 mg read seroquel debljanje
cialis open cialis walgreen coupon
amlodipine 5 mg link amlodipine accord
amlodipine 5 mg amlodipine bijwerkingen amlodipine accord
motilium enceinte blog.cr-inside.org motilium et grossesse
vivitrol alcohol what is vivitrol shot narcan challenge

- George Mavros (age 68)
NYC, NY. USA
A:
George- You've misread a bit of what we wrote.

In a standard coordinate frame, gravitational fields are very weak in most places. In some places they are zero. You can pick other coordinate frames which shift the places where the field is zero. None of that does anything to the transmission of light.

Because of the large variability in the density of dark matter, we can conclude with a lot of confidence that it's essentially irrelevant to the transmission of light.

We've discussed elsewhere that the question of whether or not there can be a perfect vacuum relies too much on semantic choices to be worth pursuing, at least at our current level of understanding. Maybe once a quantum theory of gravity is developed that will change.

Perhaps more importantly, what we mean by exploring these issues is not to just look for some satisfying words but rather to look for some mathematical structures that tell us something correct about what to expect to see in the world.

Mike W.
why people cheat catch a cheat how many people cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
internet drug coupons coupons for prescription medications prescription coupon
married men cheat with men women that cheat with married men wifes cheat
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
rite aid prescription transfer coupon open coupon rite aid
diprolene kamagra furosemide 40mg
levaquin pill cephalexin 250mg furosemide pill
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs online viagra coupons coupon prescription
lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopril and bisoprolol
where buy viagra online side effects from viagra use online viagra buy
cialis manufacturer coupon cialis discounts coupons prescription drug coupons
cialis coupon lilly blog.nvcoin.com transfer prescription coupon
arcoxia 30 arcoxia 90 arcoxia wiki
fusidinezuur kopen blog.jp-sa.org fusidic acid
seroquel 25 mg click seroquel debljanje
amlodipine 5 mg amlodipine bijwerkingen amlodipine accord
amlodipine 5 mg link amlodipine accord
cialis coupon card evans.com.mx cialis coupon

(published on 09/04/2012)

Follow-Up #12: motion and gravity

Q:
I'm not quite sure how my questions really relate to the other questions I've read here about photons and such, but hopefully you might be able to shed light on them anyhow. My first question comes from the understanding (from Brian Greene's The Elegant Universe, pg. 52) that a muon traveling at 99.9 percent of light speed becomes 22 times more massive than a resting muon. Would this not create its own small gravitational field? If so, would larger objects also gain extra gravitational force by traveling faster? Provided the later question is yes, could we suggest that gravitational fields only exist because of motion? I have more questions in this line of questioning but I think I’ll wait answers in case my future questions become moot. Also… As I understand it, according to Einstein's Special Relativity, time moves differently for those of us moving slower than those of us moving faster. Based on that idea, how can we understand or even approximate the age of the universe based on CMB since our movement in space is relative to the earth-sun-galaxy-other galaxies? How would we know if everything we observe visually and technologically isn’t traveling through empty space at some immeasurable velocity?
cheater click wifes who cheat
cheater click wifes who cheat
cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
cheater click wifes who cheat
married woman looking to cheat go most women cheat
married woman looking to cheat married men that cheat most women cheat
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
discount card prescription damske.com print cvs
priligy 30mg click cialis 40mg
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
levitra pill mostefaiamine.com tadalafil pill
prescription drugs coupons click viagra coupon card
prescription drugs coupons viagra manufacturer coupon 2016 viagra coupon card
coupons for prescriptions click prescription drugs discount cards
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs viagra coupons 2016 coupon prescription
can i take escitalopram in the morning link can i take escitalopram in the morning
cialis dosage and go cialis dose for copd pts
diabetes affect sexuality open diabetes sexuality treatment
cialis manufacturer coupon link prescription drug coupons
voltaren ára voltaren duo voltaren
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
diflucan 150 diflucan djelovanje diflucan sirup
seroquel 25 mg click seroquel debljanje
cialis cialis discount cialis walgreen coupon
allods online go allo allo
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
motilium enceinte motilium notice motilium et grossesse
trental cena trental trental nuspojave

- Rodger (age 27)
Mesquite, TX. U.S.
A:
Yes, the motion of the muon (in our reference frame) adds to its energy and hence its contribution to the gravitational field, again in our reference frame. In its own frame its at rest, and hence its field is not enhanced in that frame. The situation is slightly more complicated because the momentum also contributes to the gravitational effects. At any rate, there is also a rest mass/energy for most familiar particles, and that rest energy is by far the most important source of gravity under familiar circumstances.

Relativity doesn't say "time moves differently for those of us moving slower than those of us moving faster" because it denies that the terms "moving slower" and "moving faster" have any objective meaning, except within a particular choice of reference frame. Nobody is moving in their own frame. It is true that the time intervals assigned to events differ between frames moving with respect to each other, but which way the differences go depend on how the events are moving with respect to the frames.

We can assign a velocity to everything we see without changing the laws of physics describing things. Nevertheless, the most obvious convenient choice is to set the average velocity of everything within range of us to zero. The easiest way to do that is to say that the CMB coming in from all directions is equal in the best frame. Using that natural frame, our galaxy is in motion at about 600 km/s. (see )

Mike W.
why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
why people cheat catch a cheat how many people cheat
why people cheat catch a cheat how many people cheat
cheater read wifes who cheat
married woman looking to cheat My wife cheated on me most women cheat
cvs discount card click prescription drugs discount cards
walgreens coupons deals site walgreens photo print coupons
levitra pill go tadalafil pill
imitrex 50mg thyroxine flagyl 200mg
online discount pharmacy viagra coupons and discounts coupon for prescription
free viagra samples coupon gallaghermalpractice.com viagra 2016 coupon
coupons for prescriptions click prescription drugs discount cards
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
cialis price online open cialis price history
cialis manufacturer coupon cialis discounts coupons prescription drug coupons
cialis coupon lilly click transfer prescription coupon
cialis coupon card read cialis coupons from manufacturer
coupons for prescriptions open drug prescription card
venlafaxine gewichtstoename read venlafaxine fk
arcoxia 30 go arcoxia wiki
champix alkohol click champix
fusidinezuur kopen blog.jp-sa.org fusidic acid
kamagra wikipedia kamagra jelly kamagra shop
fluvoxamine (luvox) blog.tgworkshop.net fluvoxamina bula
amlodipine 5 mg amlodipine bijwerkingen amlodipine accord

(published on 03/06/2013)

Follow-Up #13: Many cosmic question

Q:
If neutrinos are heavier and slower than photons, why do neutrinos go straight through objects while photons can be refracted and slowed down in different mediums? Why did neutrinos arrive from Supernova 1987A before the photons, after traveling for 168,000 years? Shouldn't the photons have had plenty of time to catch up and pass the neutrinos if they travel slightly faster? Is the speed of light actually constant or does it change with time as universal gravity lessens as the universe expands? Did the universe start with a slow bang and gradually but very slowly speed up as universal gravitation lessens? Do photons have mass? Can entrophy decrease inside black holes? Thanks for any answers.
internet drug coupons open prescription coupon
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
free prescription cards go walgreens prints coupon codes
discount card prescription damske.com print cvs
priligy 30mg bistromc.org cialis 40mg
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
imitrex 50mg thyroxine flagyl 200mg
viagra coupons from manufacturer open drug discount coupons
new prescription coupon discount drug coupons prescription coupon card
coupons prescriptions blog.brunothalmann.com manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
1 wk pregnant d&c dilation and curettage article on abortion
acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas
lilly cialis coupon coupons for prescriptions coupons prescriptions
diflucan 150 site diflucan sirup
fluvoxamine (luvox) blog.tgworkshop.net fluvoxamina bula
renovacija stanovanja renovator renova g
voltaren retard link voltaren spray
how expensive is an abortion do abortions hurt abortion clinics dallas tx

- Kevin Henriksen (age 42)
Australia
A:

Q: "If neutrinos are heavier and slower than photons, why do neutrinos go straight through objects while photons can be refracted and slowed down in different mediums?"

A: Neutrinos don't participate in electromagnetism. The interact only via gravity and the weak nuclear force. Those are both far too weak to cause the sort of slowing that affects photons.

Q: " Why did neutrinos arrive from Supernova 1987A before the photons, after traveling for 168,000 years?  Shouldn't the photons have had plenty of time to catch up and pass the neutrinos if they travel slightly faster?"

A: No. They were catching up, but not nearly enough to make up for the initial photon delay in getting out.

Q: "Is the speed of light actually constant or does it change with time as universal gravity lessens as the universe expands?"

A: So far no measurement has indicated that the fundamental constants are changing.

Q: "Did the universe start with a slow bang and gradually but very slowly speed up as universal gravitation lessens?"

A: Is there a theory along those lines? Does it give anything like the extraordinary detailed fit to the data (e.g from the Planck satellite) given by the standard inflationary Big Bang theory?

Q: "Do photons have mass?"   A: see 

  Q: "Can entrophy decrease inside black holes?"

A: No.

Mike W.

cheater click wifes who cheat
cheater read wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic abortive live abortion video
internet drug coupons open prescription coupon
cvs discount card cvs new prescription coupon prescription drugs discount cards
rite aid prescription transfer coupon open coupon rite aid
prescription drugs discount cards blog.plazacutlery.com coupons for viagra printable
pfizer coupons for viagra free discount prescription cards viagra discounts coupons
can i take escitalopram in the morning can i take escitalopram in the morning can i take escitalopram in the morning
cialis dosage and cialis dose for copd pts
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
prescription drug coupons cialis coupons from lilly drug coupon
cialis coupon card eblogin.com cialis coupons from manufacturer
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
kamagra wikipedia kamagra jelly kamagra shop
seroquel 25 mg site seroquel debljanje
cialis cialis cialis walgreen coupon
cefdinir red stool ski-club-auringen.de cefdinir nedir
renovacija stanovanja blog.myexpensesonline.co.uk renova g
voltaren retard voltaren forte voltaren spray

(published on 08/22/2013)

Follow-Up #14: photon physics

Q:
Thank you very much for your quick responses. A few more questions: Why were photons delayed in getting out of Supernova 1987A? With mass constant and the universe expanding, wouldn't universal gravitation lessen over time? How do you know what is happening entropy-wise inside black holes? Aren't black holes re-organizers of matter? How do polarized sunglasses block 50% of the light and polarize the other 50% no matter what angle they are tilted to the incoming light? Is there a way to record the temperature of a photon?
why people cheat catch a cheat how many people cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic site live abortion video
the best android phone how to spy on cell phones phone tracking apps
internet drug coupons coupons for prescription medications prescription coupon
married woman looking to cheat My wife cheated on me most women cheat
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
walgreens coupons deals free grocery coupons walgreens photo print coupons
rite aid prescription transfer coupon mesutcakir.com.tr coupon rite aid
levaquin pill cephalexin 250mg furosemide pill
levaquin pill cephalexin 250mg furosemide pill
levitra pill go tadalafil pill
pfizer coupons for viagra prescription coupon viagra discounts coupons
1 wk pregnant d&c dilation and curettage article on abortion
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
acheter viagra pas http://acheterviagraenfrance.com/pas acheter viagra pas
cialis price online lipseysguns.com cialis price history
cialis coupons from lilly coupon for free cialis coupons for prescriptions
cialis manufacturer coupon link prescription drug coupons
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
cialis driverblog.suddath.com cialis walgreen coupon
buscopan hund buscopan dosierung buscopan dragees
renovacija stanovanja renovator renova g
lasix injetavel lasix efeitos colaterais lasix
lasix injetavel lasix para emagrecer lasix
nurofen cold and flu dosage internetsellout.com nurofen plus dosage
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
motilium enceinte blog.cr-inside.org motilium et grossesse
singulair 4 mg granulat site singulair patient information
cialis coupon card coupon prescription cialis coupon
prescriptions coupons cialis coupon drug prescription card

- Kevin Henriksen (age 42)
Australia
A:

Let's start with one I know:

"Is there a way to record the temperature of a photon?: A photon has no temperature. Temperature describes a probability distribution for being in states with different energies. "A photon" sounds like it's in a single definite state.The only single state that has a definite temperature is the state of lowest energy, with T=0, which has zero photons. 

" Why were photons delayed in getting out of Supernova 1987A? ":  I guess the photons had to work their way out through a plasma of charged particles. They would scatter and be absorbed/emitted many times, unlike the weakly-interacting neutrinos. Something like that happens with photons, but not neutrinos, coming from the Sun.

"With mass constant and the universe expanding, wouldn't universal gravitation lessen over time? " : The gravitational tension pulling the whole universe back together would (and did) lessen over time. However, unless there's some completely new physics not yet understood and not evident in the behavior of galaxies, that has no effect on the more familiar symptoms of universal gravitation- the attractions of stars, galaxies, etc.

"How do you know what is happening entropy-wise inside black holes?  " I think it's fair to say that, at least at the moment, we don't quite know what's going on entropy-wise inside a black hole. (see the many recent arguments about black hole firewalls)  Viewing the black hole from the far outside, several lines of argument (beyond my ability to reproduce) say that its entropy is A/4, where A is the horizon area in Planck units. (see , ) I'll update this answer if I can find a good explanation.

"Aren't black holes re-organizers of matter?" Yes, but so is everything else interesting, e.g. you. The question is whether, as viewed from the outside,  black holes do something special, that is change quantum states in a "non-unitary" way, in which a single state turns into a probabilistic mixture of states, not just a more complicated-looking single state. The current consensus leans toward answering "no, it's unitary" but the confidence on that answer has recently dropped. If the answer changes to "yes, it's non-unitary", then maybe we'll also have to re-evaluate whether less exotic systems (e.g. you) are also somewhat non-unitary. That would mean an enormous revolution in basic physics.

"How do polarized sunglasses block 50% of the light and polarize the other 50% no matter what angle they are tilted to the incoming light? " : A better way to think of this is that the incoming light was already a mixture (usually about 50/50) of the two orthogonal linear polarizations. The polarizer absorbs one but not the other. (See ) In practice, they don't work perfectly, and will transmit a little of the blocked polarization and block a significant amount of the transmitted polarization. Those percents will actually depend some on the whether the polarizer directly faces the light or is tilted. Perhaps what you mean is how can they work the same even as they're turned at different angles, still directly facing the light. Here the key idea.  Because the equations describing the wave propagation are linear, you can get the behavior of the whole wave by summing the behaviors of any parts you break it into. You can take the same wave and break it into orthogonal polarization components along any two right-angle axes. That's because the electric fields are vectors, and you can express vectors in any basis set that you choose. So you just pick a basis where one axis is along the direction the polaroid absorbs and the other is at right angles to it.

Mike W.

cheater read wifes who cheat
cheater read wifes who cheat
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
online discount pharmacy dotnetblogengine.net coupon for prescription
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas
cialis price online lipseysguns.com cialis price history
cialis manufacturer coupon link prescription drug coupons
augmentin générique arbot.cz augmentin sirop
arcoxia 30 arcoxia 90 arcoxia wiki
champix alkohol go champix
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar pris proscar pris
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
lasix injetavel lasix para emagrecer lasix
singulair 4 mg granulat site singulair patient information

(published on 08/22/2013)

Follow-Up #15: photon energy and frequency

Q:
In photoelectic effect, it is said that the energy of the electrons emitted increase with the increase only with the frequency of the photon. Here, how can a photon have a frequency? By definition frequency is the number of oscillations of produced in a second. As far a photon is concerned where does the oscillation come from? What oscillates in a photon? Also, how such an oscillation decide the energy of the photon?
why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
married woman looking to cheat married men that cheat most women cheat
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
married men cheat with men why husbands cheat wifes cheat
types of abortions read what happens when you get an abortion
walgreens coupons deals site walgreens photo print coupons
diprolene kamagra furosemide 40mg
coupons rx open www.januvia.com coupons
free online coupons pharmacy coupon new prescription coupons
new prescription coupon areta.se prescription coupon card
prescription drugs coupons click viagra coupon card
coupons for prescriptions new prescription coupons prescription drugs discount cards
pfizer coupons for viagra free discount prescription cards viagra discounts coupons
discount prescriptions coupons mba-institutes.com internet drug coupons
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
where buy viagra online side effects from viagra use online viagra buy
cialis coupon card open cialis coupons from manufacturer
claritinekombo read claritine za psa
voltaren ára go voltaren
augmentin générique read augmentin sirop
augmentin générique arbot.cz augmentin sirop
fusidinezuur kopen fusidinezuur kopen fusidic acid
fusidinezuur kopen fusidinezuur kopen fusidic acid
diflucan 150 gruene-kehl.de diflucan sirup
flibanserin online click flibanserin buy
proscar vs propecia for hair loss read proscar pris
fluvoxamine (luvox) open fluvoxamina bula
singulair 4 mg granulat site singulair patient information

- Mohan (age 61)
chennai, tamil nad, india
A:

This is one of those simple-sounding questions whose answer will have to go deep into the unfamiliar world of quantum mechanics. As a result, you will probably find it unsatisfying. If some reader can think of a better way to convey the ideas, we'd love to hear it.

Q: "What oscillates in a photon? " 

A: A photon, like any other quantum state, has a "phase", a complex number that rotates in the complex plane. The frequency is the frequency of that rotation.

Q: "Also, how such an oscillation decide the energy of the photon?"

A: This one is easy. That quantum frequency is exactly the same thing as energy, always, for everything, not just photons. They're just two different names for the same thing. Often different units are used when the name "energy" is used and when the name "frequency" is used. The unit conversion factor is called Planck's constant.

So the interesting question becomes: what does that abstract quantum frequency have to do with the more familiar frequencies you measure, such as the rate at which a classical electrical field might oscillate? All those classical frequencies come from beat frequencies between quantum states with different frequencies (or, you could say, energies). As they go in an out of phase, interference terms between them change, so "things" move around and classical fields change. It's easier to visualize this idea with states that represent the fuzzy positions of particles rather than photon states. It turns out that electrical field oscillations come from beats between states with different numbers of photons. That sounds like it means that a state with one photon (or any other definite number) would not have an oscillating electrical field. And that conclusion is indeed right- a state with a definite photon number has an unchanging distribution of possible fields centered on zero.

Mike W.

cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
best android spy apps to spy on phones how to spy on an android phone
walgreens coupons deals blog.mrwade.co.uk walgreens photo print coupons
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
rite aid prescription transfer coupon mesutcakir.com.tr coupon rite aid
free online coupons pharmacy coupon new prescription coupons
coupons for prescriptions floridafriendlyplants.com prescription drugs discount cards
viagra coupon card blog.brunothalmann.com viagra free coupon
diabetes affect sexuality diabetes sexuality treatment
discount prescription drug cards cialis online coupon prescription discounts cards
voltaren ára voltaren duo voltaren
venlafaxine gewichtstoename read venlafaxine fk
arcoxia 30 arcoxia 90 arcoxia wiki
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
seroquel 25 mg site seroquel debljanje
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
trental cena trenitalia trental nuspojave

(published on 11/10/2013)

Follow-Up #16: photon mass in matter

Q:
I hope my questions aren't stupid but i really love physics and i have hundreds of questions in my mind without an answer. So, please be patient if my questions are dumb. I read an answer saying that a photon has zero rest mass since it moving at the speed of light. I also know that MIT managed to slow down the speed of light of a photon to be just few hundred miles per hour. If mass decrease when speed increase and vise versa, then now after MIT researches we can measure the rest mass of a photon..based on that we can measure a weight of a photon too.
why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
the best android phone mealmixer.com phone tracking apps
internet drug coupons site prescription coupon
married woman looking to cheat My wife cheated on me most women cheat
married woman looking to cheat married men that cheat most women cheat
best android spy apps to spy on phones how to spy on an android phone
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
ventolin 2mg bistromc.org deltasone 40mg
free online coupons pharmacy coupon new prescription coupons
new prescription coupon discount drug coupons prescription coupon card
discount prescriptions coupons pet prescription discount card internet drug coupons
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs viagra coupons 2016 coupon prescription
cialis manufacturer coupon link prescription drug coupons
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
cialis coupon lilly coupons for cialis printable transfer prescription coupon
lilly cialis coupon prostudiousa.com coupons prescriptions
lilly cialis coupon click coupons prescriptions
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
voltaren ára go voltaren
arcoxia 30 arcoxia 90 arcoxia wiki
champix alkohol mdwguide.com champix
fusidinezuur kopen go fusidic acid
ibuprofen rapid ibuprofen spc ibuprofen
cialis driverblog.suddath.com cialis walgreen coupon
buscopan hund buscopan wirkung buscopan dragees
lasix injetavel lasix para emagrecer lasix
voltaren retard voltaren pomada voltaren spray
nurofen cold and flu dosage internetsellout.com nurofen plus dosage
motilium enceinte blog.cr-inside.org motilium et grossesse
prescriptions coupons cialis coupon drug prescription card

- Hisham Ragheb (age 32)
Bolkely, Alexandria, Egypt
A:

Hi Hisham- Good question. I've placed it as a follow-up to some related questions.

The weight of a photon is just given by ghf/c2, where g is the gravitational field, h is Planck's constant, f is the photon frequency, and c is the speed of light. That weight just depends on one property of the photon: energy, hf. That doesn't change as the photon goes into some material and changes into a different sort of particle, moving more slowly.

Mike W.

types of abortions read what happens when you get an abortion
married cheaters site dating for married men
married cheaters redsoctober.com dating for married men
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
coupons rx open www.januvia.com coupons
free online coupons onlineseoanalyzer.com new prescription coupons
imitrex 50mg thepoliticalsword.com flagyl 200mg
coupons prescriptions prescription savings cards manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
can i take escitalopram in the morning can i take escitalopram in the morning can i take escitalopram in the morning
diabetes affect sexuality cialis dosage information diabetes sexuality treatment
voltaren ára voltaren duo voltaren
augmentin générique read augmentin sirop
diflucan 150 site diflucan sirup
diflucan 150 diflucan djelovanje diflucan sirup
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar pris proscar pris
lasix injetavel lasix efeitos colaterais lasix
motilium enceinte site motilium et grossesse
how expensive is an abortion abortion clinic abortion clinics dallas tx

(published on 11/21/2013)

Follow-Up #17: understanding why light travels at c

Q:
Are there any significant counter-arguments within the physics community regarding the idea of emitted photons (light) instantaneously assuming the speed of light? In other words is it completely accepted that there can be no acceleration phase because photons in a vacuum ONLY exist at speed c? And lastly, am I right in saying that the strongest argument for the fact that an acceleration phase does not exist is this: for a particle that can travel at the speed of light to fit with Einsteins relativistic equations eg momentum = (mass * velocity) * Lorentz factor, it must be assumed that that particle (photon) has zero rest mass (otherwise it would have an infinite momentum), and therefore the important consequent assumption being that the particle therefore can only exist at c? In other words, its because everything just fits and makes sense mathematically if we just think of photons as having to solely exist at the speed of light?
why people cheat catch a cheat how many people cheat
why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
married men cheat with men open wifes cheat
imitrex 50mg thepoliticalsword.com flagyl 200mg
lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopriland.net lisinopril and bisoprolol
diabetes affect sexuality open diabetes sexuality treatment
viagra bestellen online viagra online shop pillen kopen
viagra bestellen online viagra pillen kruidvat pillen kopen
cialis coupon lilly click transfer prescription coupon
cialis coupon card read cialis coupons from manufacturer
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
lilly cialis coupon coupons for prescriptions coupons prescriptions
voltaren ára voltaren duo voltaren
venlafaxine gewichtstoename idippedut.dk venlafaxine fk
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
diflucan 150 gruene-kehl.de diflucan sirup
flibanserin online click flibanserin buy
amlodipine 5 mg amlodipine bijwerkingen amlodipine accord
motilium enceinte motilium notice motilium et grossesse
prescriptions coupons cialis coupon drug prescription card

- Patrik Amethier (age 18)
Stockholm, Sweden
A:

Yes, the arguments go exactly the way you surmised.

Mike W.

cheater read wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic stories of abortion live abortion video
internet drug coupons open prescription coupon
married woman looking to cheat married men that cheat most women cheat
married men cheat with men women that cheat with married men wifes cheat
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
diprolene site furosemide 40mg
prescriptions coupons go discount coupon for viagra
viagra coupons free softballspa.com drug coupons
coupons prescriptions blog.brunothalmann.com manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
where buy viagra online side effects from viagra use online viagra buy
cialis coupon card read cialis coupons from manufacturer
drug discount coupons blog.suntekusa.com discount coupons for prescriptions
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
diflucan 150 gruene-kehl.de diflucan sirup
seroquel 25 mg click seroquel debljanje
cefdinir red stool ski-club-auringen.de cefdinir nedir
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
singulair 4 mg granulat site singulair patient information
vivitrol alcohol vivitrol implant narcan challenge

(published on 03/05/2014)

Follow-Up #18: speed of light and ether

Q:
What evidence are you using that would suggest light moved anywhere? For example, you don't measure resistance in metal and say something travelled at the speed of temperature.
married woman looking to cheat go most women cheat
diprolene go furosemide 40mg
prescription drugs discount cards link coupons for viagra printable
viagra coupons from manufacturer liberitutti.info drug discount coupons
viagra coupon card blog.brunothalmann.com viagra free coupon
viagra coupons free link drug coupons
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
coupon for viagra modelosguayaquil.com viagra discount coupons online
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopriland.net lisinopril and bisoprolol
viagra bestellen online viagra pillen kruidvat pillen kopen
where buy viagra online viagra for sale uk online viagra buy
prescription drug coupons cialis coupons from lilly drug coupon
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
discount prescription drug cards open prescription discounts cards
venlafaxine gewichtstoename idippedut.dk venlafaxine fk
naprosyn roche naprosyn wiki naprosyn nedir
fusidinezuur kopen go fusidic acid
ibuprofen rapid tracyawheeler.com ibuprofen
flibanserin online click flibanserin buy
amlodipine 5 mg amlodipine bijwerkingen amlodipine accord
renovacija stanovanja renovator renova g
nurofen cold and flu dosage internetsellout.com nurofen plus dosage
cialis coupon card evans.com.mx cialis coupon
trental cena trenitalia trental nuspojave
how expensive is an abortion do abortions hurt abortion clinics dallas tx
vivitrol alcohol what is vivitrol shot narcan challenge

- Charlie (age Cur)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
A:

I'm not sure what you mean by "the speed of temperature", but probably this is what you're getting at. In many familiar waves (plucked string, water ripples,...) the wave travels at some speed but the stuff that is doing the waving (string, water,...) isn't going anywhere fast. You're thinking that although electromagnetic waves travel at c, the "stuff" that's waving isn't traveling, and you want to call that stuff "light".

The key problem with that is that what we mean by light is the wave itself. We know when and where it starts, and when and where it arrives. So you can measure the speed. It's "c".

Now you can claim that the light wave is in some underlying stuff, which people used to call "the luminiferous ether". Many experiments looking for this ether failed to find it. Still, if you're willing to have it obey some surprising properties (relativity), you're free to claim it exists. So then you'd have something connected with the light that's not traveling at c, just as the electrons in a wire don't travel as fast as the electrical signal. It doesn't matter, because the speed of light doesn't mean the speed of that hypothetical ether but rather the speed of the light itself.

Mike W.

 

cheater what to do when husband cheats wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic abortive live abortion video
walgreens coupons deals free grocery coupons walgreens photo print coupons
married cheaters site dating for married men
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
coupons rx open www.januvia.com coupons
online discount pharmacy viagra coupons and discounts coupon for prescription
new prescription coupon discount drug coupons prescription coupon card
viagra coupon card blog.brunothalmann.com viagra free coupon
can i take escitalopram in the morning can i take escitalopram in the morning can i take escitalopram in the morning
cialis dosage and cialis dose for copd pts
claritinekombo read claritine za psa
diflucan 150 site diflucan sirup
amlodipine 5 mg amlodipine bijwerkingen amlodipine accord
allods online go allo allo
vivitrol alcohol what is vivitrol shot narcan challenge

(published on 03/22/2014)

Follow-Up #19: photons in matter

Q:
I've really enjoyed reading this thread (http://van.physics.illinois.edu/qa/listing.php?id=2026)which I came to via engine search 'how do photons move from place to place?'. It seems that a lot of people not trained as physicists but are still fascinated with physucs (like me!) really want to grapple and understand what light 'is'. Anyway that's where I'm coming from, a few questions if you please. 1) Can the 'space' between the atoms nucleus and any electrons be regarded as a 'vacuum'? 2) Can the space between atoms in a very dense material like the Sun's core be regarded as a 'vacuum'? 3) What is the speed of light in the 'spaces' referred to in questions 1) and 2), the same as in a 'vacuum'? I'm reading 'QED, the Strange Theory of Light and Matter' at the moment. I got really lost when Feynman talks about interference. Do you know if he's saying you can explain the interference pattern of the double-split experiment viewing light solely as particles without using the wave interference line of thinking? If so, how? Many thanks for your time!
cheater click wifes who cheat
hillcrest abortion clinic abortive live abortion video
internet drug coupons coupons for prescription medications prescription coupon
types of abortions read what happens when you get an abortion
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
diprolene site furosemide 40mg
priligy 30mg go cialis 40mg
viagra coupon card blog.brunothalmann.com viagra free coupon
pfizer coupons for viagra prescription coupon viagra discounts coupons
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
diabetes affect sexuality diabetes sexuality treatment
where buy viagra online http://viagraforsaleuk1.com online viagra buy
where buy viagra online http://viagraforsaleuk1.com online viagra buy
cialis coupon lilly blog.nvcoin.com transfer prescription coupon
discount prescription drug cards open prescription discounts cards
claritinekombo warpedfish.co.uk claritine za psa
voltaren ára voltaren duo voltaren
venlafaxine gewichtstoename idippedut.dk venlafaxine fk
venlafaxine gewichtstoename idippedut.dk venlafaxine fk
arcoxia 30 go arcoxia wiki
fusidinezuur kopen fusidinezuur kopen fusidic acid
ibuprofen rapid ibuprofen spc ibuprofen
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
proscar vs propecia for hair loss proscar pris proscar pris
buscopan hund buscopan wirkung buscopan dragees
renovacija stanovanja click renova g
prescriptions coupons emergent-ventures.com drug prescription card

- Deborah (age 44)
U.K.
A:

1) The space between the nucleus and the atom really isn't a vacuum. The quantum state of the electrons is spread out throughout that space. Within the standard current interpretations of quantum mechanics, the electron isn't one place in particular but really exists as a spread-out wave-like state. (see  follow-up # 37 here  but also see below.)

2) The same goes for the inside of the Sun. The quantum states of the particles are smeared out and overlapping.

3. The speed of light is reduced, because what travel is not bare light but ligt dressed in some shaking of those waves that were already in that space. To define a speed, you need to consider a volume big enough so that the various vibration modes of the background fields (mainly of electrons) can be specified.

This may be a minority viewpoint, but I did think one feature of Feynman's QED was peculiar. Although the explicit content all involves those spread-out waves and their interference, Feynman insists that the meaning of it all should be understood in terms of real point-like particles. I don't know why he wrote that, or even quite what he meant by it. 

I should mention one very recent start toward a new interpretation of quantum mechanics in which particles do actually have positions. The wave-like properties arise from the average properties of a swarm of alternative universes which interact non-locally with ours. (This is called the Many Interacting Worlds interpretation: .) Weird as this one may sound, I guess it's no worse than any other interpretation of QM. The main drawback to it is that if somehow it were experimentally tested and found to have some supporting evidence, I'd feel obliged to find and change all of the old answers in which I claimed that no interpretation with specific particle positions could be viable.

Mike W.

why people cheat marriage affairs how many people cheat
cheater read wifes who cheat
the best android phone link phone tracking apps
the best android phone link phone tracking apps
married woman looking to cheat My wife cheated on me most women cheat
married woman looking to cheat go most women cheat
cvs discount card cvs coupon online prescription drugs discount cards
walgreens coupons deals blog.mrwade.co.uk walgreens photo print coupons
free prescription cards nwwebdesigns.net walgreens prints coupon codes
married cheaters redsoctober.com dating for married men
levitra pill mostefaiamine.com tadalafil pill
finasteride zithromax cialis 80mg
ventolin 2mg thyroxine 25mcg deltasone 40mg
can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control can i take minocycline with birth control
viagra bestellen online viagra online shop pillen kopen
lilly cialis coupon click coupons prescriptions
discount prescription drug cards cialis online coupon prescription discounts cards
voltaren ára voltaren duo voltaren
arcoxia 30 arcoxia 90 arcoxia wiki
fusidinezuur kopen go fusidic acid
flibanserin online lasertech.com flibanserin buy
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
fluvoxamine (luvox) blog.tgworkshop.net fluvoxamina bula
renovacija stanovanja blog.myexpensesonline.co.uk renova g

(published on 01/28/2015)

Follow-Up #20: Can you accelerate an electron with a photon?

Q:
my question is about sub atomic particles and photons.i understand that cern uses electro magnetic fields to accelerate particles to near light speed. but is it possible to hitch a ride on a photon. i mean why cant a photon be used to accelerate a electron to light speed? sorry for the uneducated question. i do not fully understand photons
married woman looking to cheat My wife cheated on me most women cheat
best android spy apps to spy on phones how to spy on an android phone
married cheaters site dating for married men
buy sildenafil 100mg viagra without a doctor prescription viagra 100 mg
discount card prescription site print cvs
levaquin pill cephalexin 250mg furosemide pill
levaquin pill cephalexin 250mg furosemide pill
prescriptions coupons markthrice.com discount coupon for viagra
viagra coupons from manufacturer liberitutti.info drug discount coupons
prescription drugs coupons click viagra coupon card
viagra coupon card blog.brunothalmann.com viagra free coupon
discount prescriptions coupons pet prescription discount card internet drug coupons
viagra bestellen online viagra pillen kruidvat pillen kopen
where buy viagra online http://viagraforsaleuk1.com online viagra buy
cialis coupons from lilly coupon for free cialis coupons for prescriptions
cialis manufacturer coupon link prescription drug coupons
drug discount coupons blog.suntekusa.com discount coupons for prescriptions
lilly cialis coupon click coupons prescriptions
voltaren ára voltaren duo voltaren
champix alkohol click champix
kamagra wikipedia click kamagra shop
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
cialis open cialis walgreen coupon
voltaren retard voltaren forte voltaren spray
nurofen cold and flu dosage internetsellout.com nurofen plus dosage
allods online cwblog.centralworld.co.th allo allo
singulair 4 mg granulat scottdangelo.com singulair patient information
cialis coupon card evans.com.mx cialis coupon
trental cena link trental nuspojave

- jeff kozlin (age 35)
west warwick. ri usa
A:

Hello Jeff,

I you bounce a high energy photon off of an electron the electron will recoil.  The outgoing photon and electron will share the incoming momentum and energy.   The problem is that a priori you don't know the direction and momentum of the recoil direction.  Nevertheless if the incoming photon has an energy of a few MeV, from time to time the electron will  be relativistic. 

This whole process is called Compton Scattering.  See for details.

LeeH

the best android phone how to spy on cell phones phone tracking apps
types of abortions the weeks of pregnancy what happens when you get an abortion
cvs discount card click prescription drugs discount cards
online discount pharmacy viagra coupons and discounts coupon for prescription
prescriptions coupons discount card for prescription drugs discount coupon for viagra
viagra coupons from manufacturer open drug discount coupons
viagra coupon card blog.brunothalmann.com viagra free coupon
manufacturer coupons for prescription drugs online viagra coupons coupon prescription
acheter viagra pas http://acheterviagraenfrance.com/pas acheter viagra pas
cialis manufacturer coupon link prescription drug coupons
cialis manufacturer coupon cialis discounts coupons prescription drug coupons
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
naproxennatrium site naproxen migraine
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
sildenafil pfizer dotnetblogengine.net sildenafil sandoz
seroquel 25 mg site seroquel debljanje
prescriptions coupons cialis coupon drug prescription card
trental cena trental trental nuspojave

(published on 01/30/2015)

Follow-Up #21: How do we know that we cannot accelerate a photon?

Q:
How do we know that we cannot accelerate a photon? I really enjoyed your thread of questions and answers concerning light, waves, quantum, speeds, limits, oscillations, boundaries, mediums, and solids and....I have a perceptive observation or prediction. When I look at a world map that is over 400 years old, I smile because that map (good by that day's standards) has been so overcome. I mean, we actually HAD to discover America. I think about the enormous scientific/technological progress we have made on so many fronts and it's truly amazing. I too have many "why" questions as I look at our knowledge limitations approaching The Tangent. Higgs particle, dimensions, light in a container, the elegantness of our Universe and ourselves with DNA, RNA, protein and Thoughts.I often think on tachyons, multiple dimensions and smile at what I do not know.All that you have provided as answers are all true.However, some day we may literally hitch a ride on a star by knowing better as to why a few things work the way they do. Four hundred years from today our map will be improved. Until then, it's all good.
the best android phone how to spy on cell phones phone tracking apps
internet drug coupons open prescription coupon
types of abortions site what happens when you get an abortion
abortion pill clinics abortion pill prices for abortions
free prescription cards nwwebdesigns.net walgreens prints coupon codes
discount card prescription site print cvs
priligy 30mg click cialis 40mg
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
coupons rx prostudiousa.com www.januvia.com coupons
levaquin pill cephalexin 250mg furosemide pill
prescriptions coupons go discount coupon for viagra
prescription drugs coupons click viagra coupon card
coupon for viagra viagra trial coupon viagra discount coupons online
lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopriland.net lisinopril and bisoprolol
acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas acheter viagra pas
viagra bestellen online viagra pillen kruidvat pillen kopen
cialis coupon card eblogin.com cialis coupons from manufacturer
drug discount coupons link discount coupons for prescriptions
coupons for prescriptions discount prescription coupons drug prescription card
lilly cialis coupon click coupons prescriptions
discount prescription drug cards cialis online coupon prescription discounts cards
naproxennatrium site naproxen migraine
fusidinezuur kopen fusidinezuur kopen fusidic acid
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
niacine movidafm.net niacin v hrani
kamagra wikipedia click kamagra shop
ibuprofen rapid ibuprofen spc ibuprofen
sildenafil pfizer link sildenafil sandoz
cialis cialis cialis walgreen coupon
prescriptions coupons coupons for prescriptions drug prescription card
trental cena link trental nuspojave
vivitrol alcohol vivitrol implant narcan challenge

- CS Nelson (age 68)
Springboro, Ohio, USA
A:

Hi CS,

From an experimental point of view, of the many, many measurement made in the lab and in space, the result  is always comes out to the same number, c.   Even photons emitted from moving objects have velocity c.

From a theoretical point of view if the special theory of relativity is correct then all photons travel at  the speed of light.   They have zero rest mass but  carry momentum, p, and energy E = hc where h is Plank 's constant. The value of c is our old friend the speed of light.

LeeH

internet drug coupons site prescription coupon
rite aid prescription transfer coupon mesutcakir.com.tr coupon rite aid
viagra coupons from manufacturer open drug discount coupons
prescription discount coupons free prescription drug cards viagra discount coupons online
can i take escitalopram in the morning link can i take escitalopram in the morning
can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone can i take antabuse and naltrexone
lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks lisinopril and energy drinks
lisinopril and bisoprolol lisinopriland.net lisinopril and bisoprolol
voltaren ára go voltaren
naprosyn roche rileytech.net naprosyn nedir
allods online go allo allo
motilium enceinte blog.cr-inside.org motilium et grossesse
motilium enceinte blog.cr-inside.org motilium et grossesse
prescriptions coupons cialis coupon drug prescription card

(published on 12/16/2015)

Follow-Up #22: cosmology questions

Q:
My questions are about the "Wall of Forever", the moment the universe became transparent and photons can be detected for the first time. 1) Neutrinos, as with supernovas, do did not interact with the 'soup' as photons did, so they set off first into the void that followed. Did the photons overtake them, and if so when are the first neutrinos expected on earth?2) If time is really just the sequential order of things that happened, how can we really count the events backward to time = zero? Can we really theorise a moment there was no event before, ever? How can we prove this?3) You mentioned above that entropy can not slow down in a black hole. What does that mean? That everything inside a black hole is as highly ordered as it can be or that it is a highly disordered as can be (I mean in absolute terms)?4) Following from above and the darkening of the universe, as in all photons will be eaten by bigger and bigger black holes, while black holes may all find each other in the big fizzle, was the birth of gravity the first event (and arguably the last one) in the sequential time line of the universe? Or was it the birth of photons?I find all this very puzzling...
prescriptions coupons emergent-ventures.com drug prescription card

- Marco Casteleijn (age 43)
Helsinki, Finland
A:

In order of how clearly we can answer these:

1)The soup was everywhere, so the neutrinos, and later photons, started everywhere. They're still randomly buzzing around everywhere.

3) I don't think we said anything about entropy "slowing down" in a black hole. (I don't even know what that would mean.) Black holes are supposed to have the maximum entropy possible for that amount of energy confined to that amount of space (as measured from the far outside).  

4) Since the universal expansion is accelerating, those black holes will get outside each other's horizons, unless something drastic changes in the background behavior of space. That means they can't all lump up. Isolated black holes will, instead, very slowly evaporate via Hawking radiation. That will leave a universe that is an extremely thin cold soup of photons.

2) As we discuss in many other questions, we don't really know how to extrapolate our understanding of the universe back to times les than the Planck time. What sort of mathematical manifold might extend beyond that remains to be discovered. There are some ideas, and they may have observational implications, e.g. for the presence of gravity waves in the early universe. 

Mike W.

cialis cialis discount cialis walgreen coupon
buscopan hund buscopan wirkung buscopan dragees
prescriptions coupons emergent-ventures.com drug prescription card

(published on 08/31/2016)

Follow-up on this answer.