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Q & A: Eggshells in Vinegar - What happened?

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Q:
WHY DOES AN EGGSHELL DISINTEGRATE IN VINEGAR?
- Anonymous (age 13)
St. Francis, Bakersfield, CA, USA
A:
Vinegar has, among other things, a chemical called acetic acid (about 3% of it is acetic acid). Egg shells contain calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate in the egg shell reacts with vinegar to form carbon dioxide (can be seen as bubbles in the vinegar).

The reaction is: CaCO3+ 2H+ -> Ca+2 + H2O +CO2

(published on 10/08/07)

Follow-Up #1: dissolving eggshells

Q:
Besides vinegar, what else can dissolve an eggshell? I tried mixes of various things such as soda, wines, beer, and even 409. Why did some of them dissolve the eggshell?
- Danielle
Rialto Ca, USA
A:
If you look at the reaction above, you'll see that the only contribution of the acetic acid is 2H+, two protons. Any acid in water can contribute protons, so the key thing to look for is whether the chemical is very acidic. Some materials, such as cleaning fluids, may contain powerful solvents for oils, but that's not what dissolves an eggshell. Others, like colas, may be acidic enough. You tried the experiment, so you know which work better than I do. Probably, you could measure the acidity (i.e. the pH) of the liquids (maybe using cheap litmus paper) and predict which will dissolve the shell just by which have a low enough pH.

Mike W.

Lee H


(published on 03/03/07)

Follow-Up #2: egg shell in vinegar

Q:
This is not a question but rather an answer and info on the process whereby an eggshell is dissolved in vinegar (as in osmosis expts)...the eggshell (calcium carbonate) is not water soluable so to make it water soluable so that the shell dissolves, leaving the membrane, you put it in vinegar (acetic acid). The vinegar (acetic acid) reacts with the eggshell (calcium carbonate) to produce a water-soluable compound, calcium acetate, and carbon dioxide gas (the bubbles on the eggshell). Water is NOT produced from this reaction--vinegar has water in it as in diluted to 5-10% acidity. The answer given to the 12 year old questioner was not exactly accurate.
- Theresa Estes
Walker, MO USA
A:

I’m not sure your answer is as different as you think. Calcium acetate is somewhat water soluble, as you say. It goes into solution primarily as calcium ion Ca+2 and negatively charged acetate ion. So that’s what we showed. Since the acetate was there to begin with, it doesn’t appear in the formula showing what changed in the reaction. I don’t see how you get the reaction formula to balance without making an H2O, which would join the other water molecules already there. It’s true, however, that several different complexes of CO2 and water and its ions are in equilibrium in solution, so the  CO2 produced isn’t all in the simple form.

Mike W.


(published on 10/16/07)

Follow-Up #3: Effects of liquids on egg shells

Q:
could you describe the effect of Windex (pH of 9), Toilet Bowl Cleaner (pH of 0) and Oven Cleaner (pH of 13), water (pH of 7) and vinegar (pH 5) on eggshells?
- Gabby (age 13)
Canada
A:

Nothing we could say would be as vivid or accurate as what you can opbserve yourslef by doing the experiment. We do have something important to add, however. That oven cleaner can be quite nasty, so be sure to carefully follow all the handling guidelines- gloves, ventilation, etc. Some care is also good with the other cleaners.

Mike W.


(published on 02/23/14)

Follow-Up #4: do eggshells completely dissolve?

Q:
If HCl is added to ground up eggshell, would the eggshell dissolve fully or would there be a residue?
- Arielle (age 18)
America
A:

That is an excellent question to answer by doing the experiment. If I had to guess, some of the membrane that usually sticks on the inside of the shell wouldn't dissolve. But don't take my word for it.

Mike W.


(published on 02/24/14)

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