1. Generally atoms' electrons do not move in anything like the classical sense. In particular, for the lowest energy state of the hydrogen atom, the electron cloud goes absolutely nowhere, keeping a fixed distribution in time. There's some kinetic energy, associated with a distribution of purely radial
velocities. Quantum states generally have distributions of both position and velocity. That doesn't mean sometimes one value and sometimes another. It just plain means distributed, like the way a water wave is just plain spread out..
2. The answer to 1. was no.
3. Those models give something like the right numbers, but the models are completely wrong. For example, the tangential (orbital) velocity in that ground state is exactly zero.
4. For the ground state, it isn't true- hence no such B
. There are higher-energy states in which the electron cloud does actually rotate. These do have associated B
fields. You can even have states combining ones with different energies so that the actual positions of the cloud rotate in something like the way you picture classically. There is also some B
from the intrinsic electron spin, quite apart from any orbital effects.
(published on 10/19/11)