There aren't any coherent pictures in which we are embedded in some bigger-scale phenomena which somehow look like our scale, just greatly expanded. Also, as we've gone deeper into small-scale phenomena, we don't find little versions of large-scale phenomena, but things which are quite different. Although this contrast has become very sharp in light of quantum mechanics, the way the universe differed on different scales was discussed by Galileo in his Dialog on Two New Sciences.
There is, however, a substantial amount of speculation, based on the physics of what we've observed, about how our universe could be merely one branch of a much larger (probably infinite) multiverse. It's quite possible that many particular parameters (e.g. the strength of the interactions, the magnitude of the cosmological acceleration, maybe even the number of extended dimensions, ....) of the universe we know come out differently in the other branches of the multiverse.
So your philosophical point about us occupying just a little niche is indeed an active area of speculation and, to some extent, research. You might want to read Lenny Susskind's book The Cosmic Landscape.
(published on 08/13/10)